What Causes Acidity in the Stomach?

Heartburn is a frequent symptom of acid reflux, which causes a burning sensation in the lower chest. When stomach acid seeps back up into the esophagus, it’s called reflux. When acid reflux occurs more than twice a week, it is considered GERD, or gastroesophageal reflux disease.

What is the nature of acidity?

Acidity is measured in terms of a substance’s acidity index (pH). An aqueous solution’s pH varies from 0 to 14, which indicates its acidity or basicity. Zero indicates extremely acidic conditions, 7 indicates neutrality, and 14 indicates extremely basic or alkaline conditions. The pH of the water is 7.

Gastric acid overproduction may cause heartburn and other issues in the esophagus. The stomach acid released in modest amounts aids in the digestion of the proteins that are digested. The acidic content of the stomach can be anything from 1.5 to 3.5.

The pharynx (the back of the throat), esophagus, or food pipe are all passageways through which food ingested orally makes its way to the stomach. In the mouth, food is combined with saliva and is digested in about seven seconds. The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is a flap that opens to allow food into the stomach at the end of the esophagus.

The sphincter permits food to travel from the esophagus to the stomach, but not the other way around. It’s not uncommon for stomach acid or food to be pushed back up into the esophagus from the stomach, and the lining of the esophagus is damaged. 

Unlike the stomach, the lining of the esophagus is less well protected. Heartburn is caused by the esophagus’ acidity. A burning feeling is felt in the center of the chest as a result of this illness.

Excessive Stomach Acid Signs and Symptoms

The prostaglandins (hormone-like substances that control pain and inflammation) in your stomach and duodenum can be overwhelmed by too much acid in your stomach. ulcers can form if these hormones are overworked, which can lead to a variety of additional symptoms, including: 

  • Heartburn
  • Mouth-twisting acidity
  • Mouth smell
  • Coughing or hiccups that occur frequently.
  • a hoarse voice
  • Bloating
  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea

What can cause high stomach acid?

A high stomach acid level is caused by a variety of circumstances. As a result, the hormone gastrin is often overproduced. An increase in stomach acid is triggered by Gastrin, a hormone released by the stomach lining.

Common reasons for this condition include:

  • Acid hypersecretion: It is in the form of a “rebound” H2 blocker is a class of drugs that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid produced. This drug can cause an increase in stomach acid in some people after they stop using it. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) discontinuation seems to increase the risk; however, this remains debatable.
  • The Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: There are tumors in your pancreas and small intestine that are termed gastronomes when you have this unusual illness. High levels of gastrin in gastronomes lead to an increase in stomach acid.
  • Helicobacter pylori: Gastritis can be brought on by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, which has been linked to stomach ulcers. As a result of an H. pylori infection, some persons may also have elevated stomach acid levels.
  • Obstruction of the esophagus: Stomach acid production might be enhanced if the intestine-stomach pathway is blocked.
  • An uncommon but possible side effect of chronic renal failure or dialysis is an increase in gastric acid production due to an overproduction of the gastrin hormone.
  • Stress. Stress has been observed to reduce the rate at which stomach acid is expelled. The stomach’s lining is protected from acid by prostaglandins, which can be depleted by chronic stress. This increases the chance of developing an ulcer.
  • Ulcers: Ulcers are prevalent among patients who are flustered, take high amounts of NSAIDs, or are infected with H. pylori—all of which are independent factors for increased acid production.
  • Medication: H2 blockers, such as famotidine (Pepcid), and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), reduce the stomach’s acid production. After taking one of them for some time, you may notice an increase in your stomach’s acid production when you stop suddenly.
    When it comes to high stomach acid, it’s important to keep in mind that there may be no precise explanation. Abnormality refers to a condition for which the underlying cause cannot be identified.

Excessive Stomach Acid’s side effects

Having too much stomach acid can lead to the three conditions listed below:

  • Inflammatory bowel disease: Sores on the stomach’s lining caused by acid erosion.
  • GERD: gastroesophageal reflux Backflow of stomach acid into the esophagus is a disorder known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
  • Bleeding in the digestive tract: Sores and bleeding in the digestive tract, particularly in the small intestine and pancreas, can be caused by acid leakage.

What’s the Best Way to Address Acid Reflux?

Dietary and lifestyle modifications, as well as prescription drugs, can all be used to combat acidity and acid reflux. Eating smaller, more frequent, but more regular meals, eating the correct foods, and avoiding foods that can provoke acidity are just a few of the recommended dietary modifications.

Quitting smoking and drinking, getting more exercise, and watching one’s weight are all examples of healthy alterations to one’s way of life.

Prescription or over-the-counter acidity medications are available.

By coating the stomach’s lining or creating a frothy layer on top of the contents, foaming agents assist lower acidity.

Inhibitors of the proton pump help to keep acid from being produced.

Prokinetics speed up the emptying of the stomach and also strengthen the sphincter of the esophagus, making it easier to swallow food.

Overuse of antacids can lead to diarrhea or constipation if the acid in the stomach is neutralized. It is normal to consume them along with a meal.

Acid production in the stomach is reduced by H2 blockers. They are commonly consumed prior to a meal.


It is your body’s natural mechanism for aiding digestion and absorption of nutrients from food, stomach acid is a highly acidic liquid. Enzymes and mucus are also produced by your body to counteract the acid’s potency.

Heartburn, acid reflux, and stomach ulcers can all be caused by an excess of stomach acid. Stomach acid deficiency can make it difficult to properly digest food.

A stomach specialist can examine your symptoms and determine the best course of action for your situation. Acid levels can be affected by an illness, and in some situations, they may look for underlying health conditions like this.


1. What happens if your stomach acid levels are too low?

Your stomach acid helps in the digestion of your meal by breaking it down. Occasionally, the stomach produces more acid than normal. Abdominal pain, nausea, bloating, and heartburn can all result from this.

What should not do in acidity?

Foods to avoid

  • French fries and onion rings.
  • Full-fat dairy products, such as butter, whole milk, regular cheese, and Sour cream.
  • Beef, hog, or lamb greasy or deep-fried
  • Lard, ham fat, and other animal fats.
  • Snacks or treats like ice cream or potato chips.
  • Creamy sauces, gravies, and dressings for salads are all examples.

2. Does stomach acid cause gas?

Fermentation gas can cause symptoms in the lower gut or abdomen of those who have it. In order for food to be digested, the stomach produces a lot of acids. The intestines further break down the food, releasing gases in the process.


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